Large collection of drawings, plans and models related to the architectural firm of Edmond and Corrigan.
"Edmond and Corrigan is an Australian architectural firm based in Melbourne, Victoria, founded in the late 1970s by partners Maggie Edmond and Peter Corrigan, the firm's principals. The practice's work, both built and written, has been widely associated with the emergence of architectural postmodernism in Australia, an interest in suburbia and a search for an Australian architectural identity. Peter Corrigan taught design studios at RMIT University for over 30 years" [wikipedia].
Early projects, 1960s -- Projects for Keysborough Parish 1974-1980 -- Works 1975-1979 include Chapel of St Joseph, Box Hill -- Works in Canberra and NSW 1979-1980 -- Works 1980- -- STATE LIBRARY OF VICTORIA COMPETITION -- WORKS 1986-c.1992 -- WORKS 1992-1997 -- RMIT BUILDING 8 EXTENSIONS 1991-1993 -- VICTORIA COLLEGE OF THE ARTS 2004 -- ACADEMIC CENTRE, NEWMAN COLLEGE, UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE 2002-2004 -- MISCELLANEOUS -- MODELS.
Collection of audio cassettes documenting the post-punk music scene in the early 1980s, includes interviews, music tracks, and supplementary information such as contents pages, booklets, crosswords and photographs.
Fast Forward was the world’s first audio-cassette music magazine conceived and edited by Bruce Milne and Andrew Maine. Both had music programs on the Melbourne radio station 3RRR and Milne ran an independent record label Au Go Go Records. Designer Michael Trudgeon, (now Professor Michael Trudgeon, RMIT University) joined them as the designer for the magazine. The cassettes interspersed interviews with music and were packaged with printed artwork and sold in record shops around Australia and abroad. Thirteen issues were produced between November 1980 and October 1982. Regular contributors included Jeff Holland, who created elaborate sound collages which were combined with elaborate illustrations in the booklet that accompanied the audio cassette. Many ground breaking Australian bands were first published on Fast Forward tapes including Hunters and Collectors. An international audience was first exposed to music from Australian bands including Laughing Clowns, the Go-Betweens, Rowland Howard’s ‘Shivers’ as performed by The Young Charlatans, The Scientists, the M Squared label, Dead Can Dance and Pel Mel’s ‘No Word from China’ recorded as a ‘demo’.
As the magazine’s presence and reputation grew, international acts began to submit material for publication including The Cure. Interview subjects included Nick Cave, The Cure’s, Robert Smith, Mark E Smith of The Fall, and the manager of The Clash.
The collection is arranged chronologically. There is one box of material. A detailed inventory is available. There are 13 issues of the magazine held, issue 1 is missing.
The data held by RMIT Post Doctoral Research Fellow Meaghan Coyle supports the findings of the book "Chronic Urticaria", the third in the Evidence-based Clinical Chinese Medicine series.
This title focuses on a challenging skin condition: chronic urticaria. Chronic urticaria can have a significant burden on patients, with unpredictable recurrence. This book examines the Chinese medicine treatments used in a vast collection of classical Chinese medicine textbooks pre-dating modern China, provides an overview of contemporary clinical practice, and evaluates the evidence from clinical studies. The most promising evidence for Chinese herbal medicines and acupuncture interventions is highlighted.
Clinicians will find this book a valuable reference tool of the best available evidence to guide their clinical practice.
Attached file provides supplementary data for linked article
Should Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) be the tool for implementing the new Sustainable Development Goals, as they were for the Millennium Development Goals? Surprisingly, despite the controversies around them, there has never been a quantitative evaluation of PRSPs. This paper estimates the impact of having a PRSP on various targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Results suggest that countries under PRSP treatment achieve much greater reductions than control countries, in head count poverty and infant mortality, while also achieving greater improvements in primary school enrolments and gender parity.
Attached files provides supplementary data for linked article.
Microalgae have shown clear advantages for the production of biofuels compared with energy crops. Apart from their high growth rates and substantial lipid/triacylglycerol yields, microalgae can grow in wastewaters (animal, municipal and mining wastewaters) efficiently removing their primary nutrients (C, N, and P), heavy metals and micropollutants, and they do not compete with crops for arable lands. However, fundamental barriers to the industrial application of microalgae for biofuel production still include high costs of removing the algae from the water and the water from the algae which can account for up to 30–40% of the total cost of biodiesel production. Algal biofilms are becoming increasingly popular as a strategy for the concentration of microalgae, making harvesting/dewatering easier and cheaper.
We have isolated and characterized a number of natural microalgal biofilms from freshwater, saline lakes and marine habitats. Structurally, these biofilms represent complex consortia of unicellular and multicellular, photosynthetic and heterotrophic inhabitants, such as cyanobacteria, microalgae, diatoms, bacteria, and fungi. Biofilm #52 was used as feedstock for bioenergy production. Dark fermentation of its biomass by Enterobacter cloacae DT-1 led to the production of 2.4 mol of H2/mol of reduced sugar. The levels and compositions of saturated, monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Biofilm #52 were target-wise modified through the promotion of the growth of selected individual photosynthetic inhabitants. Photosynthetic components isolated from different biofilms were used for tailoring of novel biofilms designed for (i) treatment of specific types of wastewaters, such as reverse osmosis concentrate, (ii) compositions of total fatty acids with a new degree of unsaturation and (iii) bio-flocculation and concentration of commercial microalgal cells. Treatment of different types of wastewaters with biofilms showed a reduction in the concentrations of key nutrients, such as phosphates, ammonia, nitrates, selenium and heavy metals.
This multidisciplinary study showed the new potential of natural biofilms, their individual photosynthetic inhabitants and assembled new algal/cyanobacterial biofilms as the next generation of bioenergy feedstocks which can grow using wastewaters as a cheap source of key nutrients.
This collection comprises of 40+ books, most of which are inscribed by former chairman of the Herald group, and prominent journalist Sir Keith Murdoch, the founder of News Limited (News Corp Australia) and father of business magnate and media mogul Rupert Murdoch.
The collection is supplemented with a few biographies of Sir Keith Murdoch, as well as a commemorative book produced by the Herald staff in 1952 (the year he died) and the auction catalogue from the sale of his art collection and household effects the following year.
Sir Keith Murdoch is a fascinating figure in Australian history, and his formative experiences abroad as a reporter and war correspondent had a profound effect on his later life. While visiting troops in Gallipoli in 1915, he wrote his famed "Gallipoli letter" expressing grave concerns about the situation there. It is widely credited with helping force the evacuation of Australian troops in December that year.
Collection of design drawings related to the work of Frederick Charles Cecil (Fred) Ward (1900-1990). It also includes correspondence and personal papers.
Frederick Charles Cecil (Fred) Ward, (1900 −1990), furniture and interior designer.
Frederick (Fred) Ward, furniture and interior designer, was a pioneer in the modern industrial design movement in Australia, and is particularly noted for his timber furniture. In 1932 he established an interior design consultancy in Collins Street, and also around this time began selling his designs to the Myer Emporium. He joined the staff of Myer in 1935. In the post-war period he worked with Myer and as a freelance designer, and in 1947 launched Patterncraft, a range paper patterns for low-cost simple furniture. In 1948 he was commissioned to design furniture and furnishings for University House at the Australian National University, Canberra (ANU), and subsequently became the design consultant to Australian National University from 1949 to 1961. Other major projects included the Reserve Bank of Australia, the National Capital Development Commission, Australian Academy of Science and the National Library of Australia.
Fred Ward was a founding member of the Society of Designers for Industry (1948), and of the Industrial Design Institute of Australia (1958). He was awarded a MBE for his services to design in 1970, and was awarded a Life Fellowship of the Design Institute of Australia.
The collection is arranged chronologically and is listed by job. It includes 2 plan drawers and five boxes. These comprise original drawings for furniture 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, 1960s and 1970s including for Myer Emporium (1950s); blue prints for Home Beautiful magazine (1950s); various projects for the Australian National University (1952-1956); the External Affairs Department, Canberra (1952); the National Library of Australia (1963-1968). It also includes street furniture for the National Capital Development commission, and some designs by Derek Wrigley (1924- ) who worked with Ward in the ANU Design Unit. The archive also includes research files for Michaela Richards book, ‘The Best Style: Marion Hall Best and the Australian Interior 1935-1975’, Craftsman House, 1993.
Collection of photographs, brochures, newsletters, publications and posters related to the graphic design, commercial art and teaching career of John Whittenbury.
John Whittenbury (1929 - ) is graphic designer, illustrator, commercial artist, teacher, and visual merchandiser. Whittenbury was born in Adelaide in 1929. He began his career at Chrysler Australia in 1948 and while he started on the factory floor, his skill as an illustrator was noticed. He was soon producing technical drawings for the company. From 1952-1962 Whittenbury worked as a draftsman-illustrator for the RAAF, in Victoria, developing his distinctive communication aesthetic on informative posters. In 1961 he completed an Associate Diploma in Advertising Art at RMIT University and the following year began work as a designer for the Post-Master General’s Department (PMG). Here, in addition to designing posters that were distributed to post offices around Australia, he designed fully interactive public exhibitions, such as the “Science in Communications” exhibit. After a year as chief graphic designer/marketer for ISI Australasia Pty Ltd in 1970, Whittenbury commenced work at the Melbourne College of Decoration where he remained for almost two decades designing publications and teaching graphic design, 3D display, visual merchandising, and window dressing. He retired in 1991.
This collection contains work from John Whittenbury’s 60 year career, showcasing his technical, printmaking and illustrating skills as well as his keen eye for communicating commercial ideas through graphic design. There are four boxes, and these are organized by media and in chronological order comprising Box 1 (Photographs), Box 2 (Records relating to his employment with the Melbourne College of Decoration and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology), Box 3 (Melbourne College of Design, ISI Australia Pty Ltd and Melbourne College of Design); Box 4 (Posters produced over his career for RAAF, PMG and others). An inventory is available.
Large collection of textiles, objects, photographs, publications, press clippings, and ephemera relating to the life of Dr. Frances Mary Burke (1907-1994).
Dr. Frances Mary Burke (1907 - 1994), textile designer and printer, businesswoman, artist and Australian design advocate and retailer.
In the field of Australian design Frances Burke holds a pre-eminent place as a designer, design activist and business woman. She is best known for her mid-century modern textile designs and as an enterprising retailer of modernist furnishings. Burke studied to be an artist, initially attending evening classes at the National Gallery Art School in 1930, and subsequently enrolling in the General Art Course at the Melbourne Technical College (now RMIT University) in 1932. After a break in 1935, Burke studied full-time in 1936 on a bursary. From 1936 to 1938 she also studied under the painter George Bell at his school.
Burke began designing fabrics for Georges, while still a student. In 1937 she founded Burway Prints (fabric prints) with fellow Technical College graduate Maurice Holloway. Burke was the designer, and Holloway the printer. It was Australia’s first registered textile screen printery. In 1942 Burke established a new firm Frances Burke Fabrics Pty Ltd. She opened her shop NEW Design Pty Ltd in 1948 in Melbourne, and this survived in a variety of locations until 1967. Burke sold furnishings, fabrics, and domestic utensils designed in a modernist style. She received many important commissions including Sir Reginald Ansett’s Hayman Island Resort, Australian embassies in Washington and Paris, as well as hospitals in Metropolitan Melbourne and regional Victoria. Frances Burke was awarded a MBE (1970) and an Honorary Doctorate (RMIT) in 1987 in recognition of her seminal and continuing influence on Australian design.
In 1994, on the occasion of Burke’s death, her life-long companion Miss Fabie (Frances Mary) Chamberlain (died 2005) donated the contents of Burke’s studio to RMIT University.
The Frances Burke collection is the result of numerous donations. There is a combined inventory available. The largest single donation is held in accession lot 0024.0011. This is organised into categories such as textiles, artworks, photographs, news-clippings, certificates awards, ephemera, publications, correspondence, silkscreens, and magazines.
Collection of personal and professional correspondence, diaries, original artwork and needlework, notebooks, sketchbooks, research notes, lecture drafts and press clippings. It includes copies of Marion Fletcher’s publications as well as other books, pamphlets and journals.
Marion Fletcher (1910–2012): curator and costume historian. Marion Fletcher was born in Scotland in 1910 where, having completed her early education, she undertook a Diploma in Design as well as teacher training specialising in art. From 1935 to 1942 she taught design at the Edinburgh College of Art before being seconded to the Air Ministry and Ministry of Works during WWII. Fletcher migrated to Australia in 1946 where she found employment with textile designer Vida Turner before taking up a position in the School of Art at Melbourne Technical College (now RMIT University) in 1950. For the following 18 years Fletcher taught embroidery and fashion illustration at RMIT, advancing to the position of Senior Lecturer by 1964. During this time she continued in her own practice, exhibiting textile designs and embroidery and winning the prestigious Grafton Award for textile design in 1953. In 1962 Fletcher was appointed Honorary Curator of Costume at the National Gallery of Victoria (NGV) and in 1968 she resigned from RMIT to take up the position of Assistant Curator of Decorative Arts (Textiles) at the Gallery. Here she laid the foundations for its significant collection of international and Australian fashion and textiles.
In 1966 Fletcher's booklet Female Costume in the Nineteenth Century was published by the NGV, heralding her third career as an historian for upon her retirement in 1972 Fletcher published the booklet Costume and Accessories in the 18th Century (1977) for the NGV, followed by Costume in Australia 1788-1901 (1984) and, with the assistance of Leigh Purdy, Needlework in Australia: A History of the Development of Embroidery (1989).
This collection is arranged chronologically according to material type in 26 boxes. An inventory is available. Personal correspondence (1939 to 2006) – Diaries, note books and sketchbooks (1940s-2001) – Original art work (1950s) – Notes and research material for book, ‘Costume in Australian 1788-1901’ – Publications – Original needlework (1950s – 1960s) – Lectures, book proposals and other publications.
Large collection of ephemera, including posters, postcards, invitations, newsletters, photographs, including slides, tapes, videos, magazines, business correspondence documenting the activities of the Fashion Design Council.
The Fashion Design Council (FDC) was a membership organisation that was established in 1983 to support avant-garde fashion and emerging designers. It sprang from the initiative of a collective known as Party Architecture (established by Jillian Burt and Julie Purvis) who staged Fashion ’82 and Fashion ’83 at the Seaview Ballroom. The Fashion Design Council was founded by Robert Buckingham (1959- ), Kate Durham (1957- ) and Robert Pearce (1949-1989). The FDC was launched at a fashion party at the Hardware Club in Little Collins Street, Melbourne in February 1984. It staged its first parade Fashion ’84 ‘Heroic Fashion’ in November 1984 at The Venue in St. Kilda. The inaugural parade combined fashion, dance, music and performance, and included 30 designers and over 100 models. Each year the annual parades became more ambitious and drew larger audiences. In 1987 the Parade was staged in the 3000-seat Palais Theatre in St. Kilda. The following year the ‘Rabble Rowsers’ show attracted a Nestlé sponsorship and was staged at the Melbourne Town Hall, and then in Sydney. By 1989 the FDC’s parade had moved to the Rod Laver Arena, in Melbourne’s Tennis Centre, which had a seating capacity of 15,000 and was also staged in Sydney. The FDC Shop opened at 234 Collins Street in 1989. Alasdair Duncan Mackinnon, a menswear designer, ran and managed the store, which operated as a retail outlet and gallery. The FDC store and Council ceased operation in 1993.
The collection is arranged chronologically and is listed and housed by material. There are 45 boxes of materials. A detailed inventory is available. Magazines (1979–1990) – Posters (1984-1992) – Ephemera (1983-1992) – AV material (1983-1992)– Photographs and Slides (1983-1989) – Documents and Correspondence (1983-1990).
Peter Corrigan's extensive collection of books and periodicals related to architecture and design.
Corrigan was one half of Edmond and Corrigan, "an Australian architectural firm based in Melbourne, Victoria, founded in the late 1970s by partners Maggie Edmond and Peter Corrigan, the firm's principals. The practice's work, both built and written, has been widely associated with the emergence of architectural postmodernism in Australia, an interest in suburbia and a search for an Australian architectural identity. Peter Corrigan taught design studios at RMIT University for over 30 years" [Wikipedia].
"On Friday February 3rd, 2017, Aussie Rules Football changed forever.
There were twenty-four and half thousand people packed into the stands at Princes Park in Melbourne that night.
And when the siren sounded, and the ball was thrown into the air for the first time, they erupted, their roar an expression of their passion, of their joy, of long-held dreams realised.
Women have been playing football for more than 100 years. The first recorded game was played in Perth in 1915. More games followed, albeit sporadically, until state based leagues began launching from the early 1980s. The first, the Victorian Women’s Football League in 1981.
In 2010, the league commissioned a report into women’s football, a series of exhibition matches starting in 2013 grew from that report.
It was the success of those exhibition matches that encouraged the AFL to bring forward their plans for a national women’s football league and so the AFLW was born.
There are thousands of stories from that inaugural season. Feats of strength and skill and endurance, both on field and off. Tales of resilience and determination, of dreams dashed and rebuilt. But their genesis was that warm Friday night in February when thirty-two women clad in the navy blue of Carlton and the black and white stripes of Collingwood took to the field.
The First Friday in February will take you back to that night, reliving that first AFLW game and all that it meant through the memories of women who were there.
They each have a story, their story, of that First Friday in February."
The nucleotide sequences of the MLST alleles from the Australian S. uberis isolates have been deposited in GenBank as a data set with the accession numbers EF672733 to EF672747.
Multilocus sequence typing analysis of Streptococcus uberis has identified a cluster of isolates associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis and a cluster associated with cows with low somatic cell counts in their milk. Specific groups of genotypes (global clonal complex [GCC] sequence type 5s [ST5s] and GCC ST143s) were highly associated (P = 0.006) with clinical and subclinical mastitis and may represent a lineage of virulent isolates, whereas isolates belonging to GCC ST86 were associated with low-cell-count cows. This study has, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of identical sequence types (ST60 and ST184) between different continents (Australasia and Europe) and different countries (Australia and New Zealand). The standardized index of association and the empirical estimation of the rate of recombination showed substantial recombination within the S. uberis population in Australia, consistent with previous multilocus sequence type analyses.
The Circus Oz Living Archive collection comprises around 1000 Circus Oz videos taken from the 1970s to the present. It includes performances, interviews, rehearsals, documentaries and promotional footage. Accessible web versions are available in the interactive online archive at archive.circusoz.com . This is a collection of the archival high res versions of these videos.
The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author - Paul Ramsland at firstname.lastname@example.org - upon reasonable request.
Plasmodium vivax is a significant contributor to the global malaria burden, and a vaccine targeting vivax malaria is urgently needed. An understanding of the targets of functional immune responses during the course of natural infection will aid in the development of a vaccine. Antibodies play a key role in this process, with responses against particular epitopes leading to immune selection pressure on these epitopes. A number of techniques exist to estimate levels of immune selection pressure on particular epitopes, with a sliding window analysis often used to determine particular regions likely to be under immune pressure. However, such analysis neglects protein three-dimensional structural information. With this in mind, a newly developed tool, BioStructMap, was applied to two key antigens from Plasmodium vivax: PvAMA1 and PvDBP Region II. This tool incorporates structural information into tests of selection pressure.
Sequences from a number of populations were analysed, examining spatially-derived nucleotide diversity and Tajima’s D over protein structures for PvAMA1 and PvDBP. Structural patterns of nucleotide diversity were similar across all populations examined, with Domain I of PvAMA1 having the highest nucleotide diversity and displaying significant signatures of immune selection pressure (Tajima’s D > 0). Nucleotide diversity for PvDBP was highest bordering the dimerization and DARC-binding interface, although there was less evidence of immune selection pressure on PvDBP compared with PvAMA1. This study supports previous work that has identified Domain I as the main target of immune-mediated selection pressure for PvAMA1, and also supports studies that have identified functional epitopes within PvDBP Region II.
The BioStructMap tool was applied to leading vaccine candidates from P. vivax, to examine structural patterns of selection and diversity across a number of geographic populations. There were striking similarities in structural patterns of diversity across multiple populations. Furthermore, whilst regions of high diversity tended to surround conserved binding interfaces, a number of protein regions with very low diversity were also identified, and these may be useful targets for further vaccine development, given previous evidence of functional antibody responses against these regions.
The protocol and the datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Dizziness in older people is a risk factor for falls. Neck pain is associated with dizziness and responds favourably to neck manipulation. However, it is unknown if chiropractic intervention including instrument-assisted manipulation of the neck in older people with neck pain can also improve dizziness.
This parallel two-arm pilot trial was conducted in Melbourne, Australia over nine months (October 2015 to June 2016). Participants aged 65–85 years, with self-reported chronic neck pain and dizziness, were recruited from the general public through advertisements in local community newspapers and via Facebook. Participants were randomised using a permuted block method to one of two groups: 1) Activator II™-instrument-assisted cervical and thoracic spine manipulation plus a combination of: light massage; mobilisation; range of motion exercises; and home advice about the application of heat, or 2) Sham-Activator II™-instrument-assisted manipulation (set to zero impulse) plus gentle touch of cervical and thoracic spinal regions. Participants were blinded to group allocation. The interventions were delivered weekly for four weeks. Assessments were conducted one week pre- and post-intervention. Clinical outcomes were assessed blindly and included: dizziness (dizziness handicap inventory [DHI]); neck pain (neck disability index [NDI]); self-reported concerns of falling; mood; physical function; and treatment satisfaction. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, compliance with intervention and outcome assessment, study location, success of blinding, costs and harms.
Out of 162 enquiries, 24 participants were screened as eligible and randomised to either the chiropractic (n = 13) or sham (n = 11) intervention group. Compliance was satisfactory with only two participants lost to follow up; thus, post-intervention data for 12 chiropractic intervention and 10 sham intervention participants were analysed. Blinding was similar between groups. Mild harms of increased spinal pain or headaches were reported by 6 participants. Costs amounted to AUD$2635 per participant. The data showed a trend favouring the chiropractic group in terms of clinically-significant improvements in both NDI and DHI scores. Sample sizes of n = 150 or n = 222 for dizziness or neck pain disability as the primary outcome measure, respectively, would be needed for a fully powered trial.
Recruitment of participants in this setting was difficult and expensive. However, a larger trial may be feasible at a specialised dizziness clinic within a rehabilitation setting. Compliance was acceptable and the outcome measures used were well accepted and responsive.
The data that support the findings of this study are available from RMIT Associate Professor Lan Wang upon request.
Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have demonstrated fascinating optical and electrical characteristics. However, reports on magnetic properties and spintronic applications of van der Waals materials are scarce by comparison. Here, we report anomalous Hall effect measurements on single crystalline metallic Fe3GeTe2 nanoflakes with different thicknesses. These nanoflakes exhibit a single hard magnetic phase with a near square-shaped magnetic loop, large coercivity (up to 550 mT at 2 K), a Curie temperature near 200 K and strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using criticality analysis, the coupling length between van der Waals atomic layers in Fe3GeTe2 is estimated to be ~5 van der Waals layers. Furthermore, the hard magnetic behaviour of Fe3GeTe2 can be well described by a proposed model. The magnetic properties of Fe3GeTe2 highlight its potential for integration into van der Waals magnetic heterostructures, paving the way for spintronic research and applications based on these devices.
Attached file provides supplementary data for linked article.
In this related article, the researchers focus on a pseudo-coefficient of determination for generalized linear models with binary outcome. Although there are numerous coefficients of determination proposed in the literature, none of them is identified as the best in terms of estimation accuracy, or incorporates all desired characteristics of a precise coefficient of determination. Considering this, we propose a new coefficient of determination by using a computational Monte Carlo approach, and exhibit main characteristics of the proposed coefficient of determination both analytically and numerically. We evaluate and compare performances of the proposed and nine existing coefficients of determination by a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study. The proposed measure is found superior to the existent measures when dependent variable is balanced or moderately unbalanced for probit, logit, and complementary log-log link functions and a wide range of sample sizes. Due to the extensive design space of our simulation study, we identify new conditions in which previously recommended coefficients of determination should be used carefully.
Attached file provides supplementary data for linked article.
Related paper seeks to provide novel insights into the effects of ethnic communities on immigrants’ entrepreneurial activities. We investigate to what extent the decision of an employed immigrant to become an entrepreneur is associated with his or her embeddedness in ethnic networks in the host region. We capture such embeddedness through various mechanisms. Using longitudinal-registered data from Sweden and employing a logit model, we find that merely being located in an ethnic community does not have an influence on immigrant entrepreneurship; rather, what matters is being located in ethnic communities that have a high share of entrepreneurs themselves.
Attached file provides supplementary data for linked article.
An important part of assessing the toxic potential of nanoparticles for specific applications should be the direct comparison of biological activities with those of alternative materials for the same application. Nanoparticulate inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filters, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), are commonly incorporated into transparent sunscreen and cosmetic formulations. However, concerns have been raised about potential unwanted effects, despite their negligible skin penetration and inherent advantages over organic chemical UV-filters. To provide useful application-relevant assessments of their potential hazard with/without UVA co-exposure, we directly compared cytotoxic and immune response profiles of human THP-1 monocytic cells to ZnO nanoparticles (30 nm) with bulk ZnO particulates (200 nm) and five conventional organic chemical UV-filters - butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone), octylmethoxycinnamate, octylsalicylate, homosalate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor. High exposure concentrations of both organic and particulate UV-filters were required to cause cytotoxicity in monocyte and macrophage cultures after 24 h. Co-exposure with UVA (6.7 J/cm2) did not alter cytotoxicity profiles. Particle surface area-based dose responses showed that ZnO NPs were better tolerated than bulk ZnO. Organic and particulate UV-filters increased apoptosis at similar doses. Only particulates increased the generation of reactive oxygen species. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) release was increased by all particulates, avobenzone, homosalate and octylsalicylate. IL-1β release was only increased in macrophages by exposure to avobenzone and homosalate. In conclusion, direct effects were caused in monocytes and macrophages at similar concentrations of both organic UV-filters and ZnO nanoparticulates - indicating that their intrinsic cytotoxicity is similar. With their lower skin penetration, ZnO nanoparticles are expected to have lower bioactivity when used in sunscreens.
Clostridium perfringens causes a number of enteric diseases in animals and humans. In poultry, avian-specific C.perfringens strains expressing NetB toxin are known to cause NE, an economically significant poultry disease that costs the global industry over $2 billion annually in losses and control measures. With removal of antibiotic growth promoters in some countries this disease appears to be on the rise. In experimental conditions used to study disease pathogenesis and potential control measures, reproduction of the disease relies on the use of predisposing factors such as Eimeria infection and the use of high protein diets, indicating complex mechanisms involved in the onset of NE. The mechanisms by which the predisposing factors contribute to disease progression are not well understood but it has been suggested that they may cause perturbations in the microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. We inspected changes in cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) induced by Eimeria and fishmeal, used in combination or separately in birds challenged or not challenged with C. perfringens. C.perfringens challenge in the absence of both predisposing factors was not able to cause significant changes in either the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiota nor in concentrations of SCFA. Moreover, there was no C.perfringens detected in the cecal microbiota 2 days post-challenge without the presence of predisposing factors. In contrast, both fishmeal and Eimeria caused significant changes in microbiota, seen in both alpha and beta diversity and also enabled C.perfringens to establish itself from fully absent to present and abundant 2 days post challenge. Eimeria had its strongest influence on intestinal microbiota and SCFA when combined with fishmeal. Out of 6 SCFAs measured, including butyric acid, none were significantly influenced by C.perfringens, but their levels were strongly modified following the use of both predisposing factors. There was little overlap in the changes caused following Eimeria and fishmeal treatments, possibly indicating multiple routes for progressing towards clinical symptoms of NE.
Attached file provides supplementary data for linked article.
Echocardiography plays a major role in assessing cardiac function in animal models. We investigated use of a modified parasternal mid right-ventricular (MRV) and right ventricle (RV) outflow (RVOT) view, in assessing RV size and function, and the suitability of advanced 2D-strain analysis. 15 WKY rats were examined using transthoracic echocardiography. The left heart was assessed using standard short and long axis views. For the right ventricle a MRV and RVOT view were used to measure RV chamber and free wall area. 2D-strain analysis was applied to both ventricles using off-line analysis. RV chamber volume was determined by injection of 2% agarose gel, and RV free wall dissected and weighed. Echocardiography measurement was correlated with necropsy findings. The RV mid-ventricular dimension (R1) was 0.42±0.07cm and the right ventricular outflow tract dimension (R2) was 0.34±0.06cm, chamber end-diastolic area measurements were 0.38±0.09cm 2 and 0.29±0.08cm 2 for MRV and RVOT views respectively. RVOT and MRV chamber area correlated with gel mass. Doppler RV stroke volume was 0.32±0.08ml, cardiac output (CO) 110 ±27 ml.min -1 and RV free wall contractility assessed using 2D-strain analysis was demonstrated. We have shown that modified MRV and RVOT views can provide detailed assessment of the RV in rodents, with 2D-strain analysis of the RV free wall potentially feasible.
Previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that HIV protein nef plays a key role in impairing cellular and systemic cholesterol metabolism in HIV disease, but clinical support for these findings is lacking. Here we present the data of comparative lipidomic analysis (330 lipid species) of plasma samples from HIV-negative subjects, patients infected with WT HIV-1 strain and patients infected with nef-deficient strain of HIV-1. We determine which effects of HIV on plasma lipidome are explained by the presence of nef. The data can be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk in HIV disease and to assess the role of nef in HIV-induced disturbances in systemic lipid metabolism. The full impact of nef deficiency on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in HIV-infected patients is presented in the accompanying study "Lipid Metabolism in Patients Infected with Nef-deficient HIV-1 Strain"
Attached file provides supplementary data for linked article.
Eradication of HIV cannot be achieved with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) because of the persistence of long-lived latently infected resting memory CD4+ T cells. We previously reported that HIV latency could be established in resting CD4+ T cells in the presence of the chemokine CCL19. To define how CCL19 facilitated the establishment of latent HIV infection, the role of chemokine receptor signalling was explored.
In resting CD4+ T cells, CCL19 induced phosphorylation of RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Inhibition of the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Ras/Raf/Mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/ERK signalling pathways inhibited HIV integration, without significant reduction in HIV nuclear entry (measured by Alu-LTR and 2-LTR circle qPCR respectively). Inhibiting activation of MEK1/ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activating protein-1 (AP-1) and NF-κB, but not p38, also inhibited HIV integration. We also show that HIV integrases interact with Pin1 in CCL19-treated CD4+ T cells and inhibition of JNK markedly reduced this interaction, suggesting that CCL19 treatment provided sufficient signals to protect HIV integrase from degradation via the proteasome pathway. Infection of CCL19-treated resting CD4+ T cells with mutant strains of HIV, lacking NF-κB binding sites in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) compared to infection with wild type virus, led to a significant reduction in integration by up to 40-fold (range 1–115.4, p = 0.03). This was in contrast to only a modest reduction of 5-fold (range 1.7–11, p > 0.05) in fully activated CD4+ T cells infected with the same mutants. Finally, we demonstrated significant differences in integration sites following HIV infection of unactivated, CCL19-treated, and fully activated CD4+ T cells.
HIV integration in CCL19-treated resting CD4+ T cells depends on NF-κB signalling and increases the stability of HIV integrase, which allow subsequent integration and establishment of latency. These findings have implications for strategies needed to prevent the establishment, and potentially reverse, latent infection.